My primary research interest is in the field of fundamental problems of Optical Science and their applications, in particular in light-sources and light-matter interaction. For more than 25 years, I worked with high-intensity light interaction with different media (semiconductors, glasses, crystals, liquid crystals) as well as with device fabrication for increasing brightness of high-power laser sources (both for thermonuclear laser fusion and industrial applications).
More recently, using some technique from my previous experience, I moved to low intensity, single-photon counting measurements with practical application in quantum information. Using single-emitter fluorescence in photonic-bandgap materials, I am currently working on an efficient and robust single-photon source, a key hardware device for absolutely secure quantum communication. This source of single photons will also be used in fundamental quantum optical experiments. Another exciting application of the single-photon counting technique is biomedicine.
My research career began at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) where I carried out my Master and Ph.D work, being a student of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (FizTech). The subject of my Ph.D Thesis was both experimental and theoretical studies for improvement of performance of high-power laser systems for thermonuclear fusion research using spatial and temporal profile formation. It was supervised by A.M. Prokhorov and P.P. Pashinin.
For many years in Moscow, I worked with high-power Nd:glass laser amplifier systems for high-temperature heating of plasma at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, General Physics Institute and I.V. Kurchatov Nuclear Power Institute (Troitsk branch, TRINITI). During this period, methods of increasing brightness of such systems were developed by reducing Fresnel diffraction ripples causing small-scale self-focusing of light on a long optical path in glass. In collaboration with my colleagues, I developed several types of apodizing devices for high-peak-power lasers producing super-Gaussian beams. These devices (color center, total internal reflection apodizers and graded reflectivity mirrors) were fabricated and investigated both in high-peak-power laser-amplifier systems and inside resonators of high-power industrial lasers for increasing their brightness. Cholesteric liquid crystal nonlinear mirrors were suggested for the same purpose. Research of my Moscow group at the Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences showed the restriction of the use of cholesteric mirrors in high-power, high-repetition-rate lasers because of athermal helix unwinding by the field of a light wave which we observed experimentally for the first time.
The second Russian dissertation (equivalent to the full-professor level) was written and approved for defense by the scientific council of the General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in November 1996, with the title "Apodization of coherent light as a method for improving laser beam quality and divergence of high-power lasers". Shortly after the predefense meeting I accepted a visiting scientist position in the US at the Liquid Crystal Institute, Kent OH (P. Palffy-Muhoray laboratory), where my subject of research was nonlinear optical response of liquid crystals to high-power, nanosecond laser irradiation (Z-scan measurements and optical pattern formation).
At the Institute of Optics, I initially continued to work on the optical pattern formation in liquid crystals under nanosecond laser irradiation, owing to the hospitality of R.W. Boyd. I also participated in an optical pattern formation study in atomic Na vapors of Boyd/Stroud groups.
During the last several years, I was a PI in a single-photon source project using single-emitter fluorescence in liquid-crystal photonic-bandgap materials and currently continue to work in this direction (in collaboration with A. Schmid, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, S-H. Chen, K. Marshall, T. Krauss) with one graduate student.
My research is connected with producing and characterizing sources of light (both high-intensity and low-intensity levels) and with interaction of light with matter. These two directions are the subjects of several projects described below. To learn more, follow the link after each summary.
The purpose of this work is to make a robust and efficient single-photon "gun" both for practical applications in quantum cryptography and in the experiments on fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In difference with a laser, this unique light source is based on enhancement of spontaneous emission of the single-emitter in a microcavity. Single photons will be emitted on demand, triggered by high-repetition rate light or electrical pulses.
Our current solution is based on a new material concept using single-emitter excitation in specially prepared hosts based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap nanostructures [1-3]. Liquid-crystal photonic bandgap cavities possess unique properties in comparison with conventional photonic crystal cavities: (1) possibility to protect emitter from fast bleaching; (2) tunability and (3) the possibility of deterministic polarization. Recently we received a US Patent for such a source of single photons (jointly with R.W. Boyd and C.R. Stroud) .
Funded by the Army Research Office and NSF, we built two room-temperature single-photon sources for the visible spectral range (see picture with one of it) and observed fluorescence antibunching and deterministic linear and circular polarization. In this work we collaborate with A.W. Schmid, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, L. Novotny, A. Lieb, K. Marshall, S.-H. Chen, T. Krauss, and R. Sobolewski. In these experiments with liquid crystal hosts we used doping by either single dye molecules or single colloidal semiconductor CdSe quantum dots as emitters. We also observed a significant reduction in bleaching of dye fluorescence in the liquid crystal host. Currently we are working on a single-photon source on demand for 1.55 μm, using PbSe colloidal quantum dots.
Recently I made a presentation to BBN Technologies, a company building quantum cryptography optical fiber network in the Boston area. We negotiated about possible collaboration and future implementing our 1.55 μm single-photon source in their network.
For details and publications follow this link ...
This project aims at creating a microcavity for a strong coupling of polarized photons with it. For single-photon source project it is very important to obtain a high Purcell factor of the cavity (significant enhancement of spontaneous emission rate in a cavity in comparison with free space) as well as deterministic polarization. We are working on the enhancement of the single-emitter fluorescence rate in cholesteric (chiral nematic) photonic bandgap microcavities as well as in ordinary organic photonic-bandgap microcavities [collaboration with V. Menon (Queens College of CUNY)].
Recently, we obtained deterministically circular polarized fluorescence of single colloidal CdSe quantum dots doped into a cholesteric microcavity . This work is a collaboration with A. Schmid, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, S-H. Chen, K. Marshall, and T. Krauss. The picture shows an AFM-topography image of a cholesteric liquid-crystal oligomer with periodic structure (pitch) of cholesteric material.
For better understanding photon emission in different microcavities, I am collaborating with R.W. Boyd and S.H. Chen on the efficient and robust cholesteric laser  (follow the link ...). We plan to create miniature, low threshold, polarized light sources using electroluminescent, doped liquid-crystal polymers with chiral microcavities: microlasers and light emitting diodes for medicine, telecommunications and ultrabright displays as well as electroluminescent single photon sources for quantum communication.
I am also a collaborator of Il'chishin's (Kiev, Ukraine) Ukrainian-Azerbaijanian project on the use of cholesteric lasers in a space environment. This project will help to prepare a microcavity which can withstand the harsh space environment (UV and ionizing radiation) for single-photon sources for quantum communication in space. First experiments on single/entangled-photon quantum cryptography of the European Space agency and A. Zeilinger's group (Vienna, Austria) showed the potentially great future of quantum communication in space .
We are planning to develop a theory of spontaneous and induced emission in chiral and other microcavities for both single photon source applications and efficient lasing. I hope that one of the outcomes of this effort will be the construction of a microcavity strongly diminishing the emitter fluorescence lifetime. With nanosecond fluorescence lifetime, single trivalent ions of rare-earths (which are stable) can be pumped at GHz repetition rate and used as emitters for a single-photon-source-on demand device.
For details and publications follow this link ...
Quantum Optics and quantum information laboratory
The long-term goal of this project is to create both a national and an international network in the field of photon quantum mechanics teaching experiments which we are developing. Four teaching experimental setups were built at the Institute of Optics and taught during Fall 2006 as "Quantum optics and quantum information laboratory" (OPT 263K). NSF REU Summer programs, an NSF Material Instrumentation Grant, Kauffman Foundation Initiative support strongly contributed to it. I will also continue to teach this course this Fall semester.
Recently the Institute of Optics jointly with Monroe Community College (W. Mooney) was awarded by NSF for the project on teaching quantum mechanics with photon counting instrumentation. In collaboration with C.R. Stroud and W. Knox I am planning to develop my course, expanding both its laboratory space and experimental content. I am already part of a network that began to evolve in this field, being in close contact with K. Galvez (Colgate University)  and M. Beck (Whitman College) , developing quantum optics experiments for undergraduates. During the 2006 OSA Annual Meeting, I organized a special symposium in this field and made a presentation .
The main strength of my course is the use of real and sophisticated equipment of modern quantum optics and quantum information to teach the students. My students simultaneously participate in research and some of them have publications from these teaching experiments.
The course also contains an entrepreneurial component. Students write a short version of a business plan for a company operating in the field of quantum information.
The quantum optics/quantum information teaching laboratory consists of four experiments for both undergraduates and graduates: (1) entanglement and Bell's inequalities (see the picture), (2) single-photon interference, (3) confocal microscope imaging of single-emitter fluorescence, (4) Hanbury Brown and Twiss setup. Fluorescence antibunching.
For details and publications follow this link ...
Liquid crystals: photonics and nonlinear optics
My interest in nonlinear optics of liquid crystals started in 1993 after my visit to the University of Rochester, Laboratory for Laser Energetics, where hundreds of liquid crystal elements are used in the Omega laser. Several papers of this laboratory (S. Jacobs, A. Schmid et al.) attracted my attention in connection with my own research on apodizing devices in laser resonators: beam quality and divergence of cw-laser with cholesteric liquid crystal mirrors were significantly improved owing to small athermal pitch dilation of 1-D photonic band-gap structure of this material .
1. Cholesteric pitch unwinding by the field of light wave
In 1994-1995 I was awarded, among Russian scientists, highly competitive, international peer-reviewed, long-term International Science Foundation (G. Soros) Grant for my project "Transverse effects in Nd:YAG laser and free space with thin cell of liquid crystal as nonlinear element: influence of beam profile". In 1995, this support was also shared with the Government of Russian Federation, and in 1996 I was awarded the Russian Foundation of Basic Research (= NSF) Grant for its continuation.
The main results of this work are the experiments on athermal cholesteric pitch unwinding by the field of a light wave (both in a free space and in a laser resonator, where a cholesteric mirror was used as the output coupler). In spite of several, earlier attempts of different groups to observe this effect predicted by H. Winful , nobody before us was successful. The main problem was that high-intensity of laser radiation (~ MW/cm2) should be kept during long liquid crystal orientational time (~ ms). In these conditions it is impossible to separate thermal and field effects.
The experiments of my Moscow group were carried out with a 4.5 kHz pulse repetition rate laser (500 ns pulse duration, λ = 1.06 μm) with a possibility of switching it from a pulsed to a cw-mode. By switching the laser from cw into a pulsed mode, we observed a stepwise reflectivity drop of cholesteric mirrors in free space [13-14] as well as lasing ceasing when a liquid-crystal mirror was used as laser resonator output coupler . The effect was not observed in the cw-regime under identical average power density as in the pulsed mode. When we switched the laser from pulsed, into cw-mode, the lasing recovered. The photograph shows three cholesteric mirrors used in the experiments.
We explain this effect as light-wave-driven helix unwinding of the cholesteric as a result of cumulative, small pitch dilations after each pulse. This work was made in collaboration with A. Schmid (University of Rochester) and S.V. Belyaev (Moscow Organic Intermediate and Dye Institute).
It should be mentioned that after our publication, a paper by the Eichler-Macdonald group (Technical University of Berlin) appeared independently on cholesteric mirror helix unwinding in the cavity of single-pulse solid-state laser at intensity ~GW/cm2 as a result of very high-field effect which reduced the orientational time of cholesteric molecules .
Pitch dilation and unwinding effect can be used in improving beam quality and mode composition of low-repetion rate solid state lasers. I am interested in more detailed resonator experiments with such mirrors. Recently light-field-induced pitch dilation was also discussed  in connection with the performance of a cholesteric laser working in repetition rate mode.
2. Nonlinear optical response (χ(3) measurements)
The next step in nonlinear interaction of high-power laser radiation with liquid crystals was nanosecond Z-scan measurements (532-nm) of commonly used cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals of different thickness and orientation in both the isotropic and nematic state. I carried out these experiments at the Liquid Crystal Institute (Kent, OH), owing to the hospitality of P. Palffy-Muhoray. T. Kosa and B. Taheri helped me in some experiments. The practical applications of these experiments are in optical power limiting and in switching devices and beam-quality/intensity sensors of pulsed, high-power lasers . In some experiments, I used samples doped with two-photon absorption chromophores of J. Perry and S. Marder groups (currently Georgia Institute of Technology). The two-year effort resulted in 14 publications including a 47-page-paper  summarizing my results on nonlinear interaction of high-power pulsed laser radiation with liquid crystals with review of many other papers. In addition to measurements of values of nonlinear absorption and refraction, my main contributions and recommendations in construction of devices for nanosecond lasers based on liquid crystal χ(3) are as follows:
- Working with isotropic liquid crystal layers (typical thickness 1-2 mm), critical emphasis needs to be placed on irradiation geometry (beam-waist diameter) and its precise knowledge, because of at the several-nanosecond time scale and several tens of micrometers beam-waist-diameter, transient molecular-reorientation (positive) and thermal/density refractive (negative) nonlinearities compete in changing the sign of the total transient refractive nonlinearity [a buid up time of thermal-density nonlinearity tac= r0/Vs is close to laser pulse duration, where r0 is the beam radius and Vs is the velocity of sound (~ 1500 m/s)]. With much of this information absent or guessed in many past measurements, reliable χ(3) values are sparse indeed.
- Planar-nematic layers irradiated by pulses with 2-10 Hz repetition rate which are commonly used in many commercial lasers, with linear polarization parallel to the liquid crystal director (buffing direction) experience cumulative, laser-driven heating effects. Among the consequences of this local heating is the important difference in liquid crystal response between first irradiation and much later ones. Liquid crystal devices, such as power limiters, that are expected to show specified performance on the first shot without preconditioning, cannot be based on measurements that do not distinguish this difference. Numerical modeling of the heat diffusion at 10-Hz pulse-repetition-rate (jointly with A. Schmid) confirms cumulative heating of liquid crystals by several degrees at the center of a Gaussian beam. Such local heating is a plausible mechanism for the observed spatial self-phase modulation rings at higher intensities with several-second build-up time.
- Nanosecond Z-scan measurements of nonlinear absorption indicate the layer-thickness dependence of "nonlinear absorption" showing a key role surfaces (and possible "damage" near surface with light scattering invisible by eye) play in measurements.
3. Application of liquid crystals in single-emitter fluorescence microscopy and quantum information
(see Single Photon Source ...)
4. Cholesteric laser
For details and publications on liquid crystals follow this link ...
Transverse effects and optical pattern formation
Beams of light interacting with nonlinear-optical materials form complex transverse profiles . Self-focusing, filamentation, spatial modulation instability, spontaneous pattern formation are some of many transverse effects. To explain the formation of regular spontaneous spatial patterns in the light beam propagating in nonlinear media, the methods of hydrodynamics and the theory of nonequilibrium systems (or synergetics) should be involved .
I began to work on transverse effects in the spatial distribution of laser beam studying the problem of avoiding hard-edge Fresnel diffraction ripples and small-scale self-focusing in high-power Nd:glass laser amplifier systems (see next section). Owing to spatial modulation instability, regular mosaic (hexagon-like structures) can be observed in such systems even in a single beam and without optical feedback [22-23].
Liquid crystals provide another wide opportunity for studying self-organization in nonlinear optics because of their high χ(3) value and possibility to control their parameters by external fields. Working at Kent (P. Palffy-Muhoray laboratory) on nanosecond Z-scan measurements of liquid crystals with two-photon absorption I observed several, long-time lasting stationary far-field transverse effects in a single beam under several Hz pulse repetition rate ("dark"-spot, elliptical rings, four-leave-clover, asymmetric scattering) .
At the Institute of Optics my continuation of nanosecond optical response study of liquid crystals to high-power, nanosecond radiation [R.W. Boyd laboratory, also collaboration with N. Lepeshkin (now San-Francisco State University)] led to new, beautiful phenomena - kaleidoscope of patterns in the far-field (see the picture) changing from rings and stripes to the hexagons of different dimensions as Fourier transforms of near-field images (single, double and three or more spots). These phenomena were observed in a single beam without feedback with highly absorbing liquid crystal cells as well as thin cells of isotropic liquids using different dyes and hosts . Sometimes a single pattern can be "frozen", so that after switching the laser off, far-field hexagonal or other pattern can be observed in a week probe (cw) beam .
Immediately after the experiments, the samples showed, under a microscope, phase separation of the dye from the host . Phase separation of the dye from liquid crystals was also observed under cw-irradiation in paper 25. We explain kaleidoscope of patterns by diffraction of light on hard-edges of nonabsorbing "holes" in the absorbing material produced by the phase-separation. Essentially, two different processes can lead to this phase separation: thermodiffusion (Soret effect)  and electrostriction .
Remarkably, at the same time working on R.W. Boyd and C.R. Stroud groups' project involving atomic Na vapors as nonlinear medium, I participated in the research of exactly the same type of optical patterns in a single Gaussian beam and without feedback: stripes or hexagons in the far field with two and tree spots in near field . In spite of visual similarity, the mechanism of this effect is absolutely different from the doped-liquid-crystal case: spatial modulation instability in a medium with saturation of nonlinearity was suggested.
For details and publications follow this link ...
Laser beam profile formation and propagation
I summarized my experience on laser beam spatial profile formation in my second Russian Dissertation "Coherent beam apodization as the method of improving high-power laser beam quality and divergence" (In addition to a Ph.D level degree, there is a second academic degree in Russia, the "Doctor of Sciences". This Degree may be earned by those, who made a substantial contribution to the Science; an American Full Professor may qualify for this degree. After its predefence, I received a recommendation for its defence in November 1996 by the scientific council of the General Physics Institute (see this approval signed by A.M. Prokhorov and a short Thesis version ("Avtoreferat") in Russian only).
Several types of high-laser-radiation-damage threshold apodizing devices with super-Gaussian transmission profiles both for laser-amplifier systems of thermonuclear fusion lasers and industrial lasers were proposed and developed: based on various transformation of color centers in doped glasses and crystals [22, 29], and vacuum deposition of thin profiled layers  [including graded reflectivity mirrors  (see the picture)]. These devices have been investigated and used in various laser systems for reducing Fresnel diffraction ripples causing small-scale self-focusing in high-power laser amplifiers as well as for increasing brightness, improving beam quality and diminishing divergence of industrial lasers. Some of these devices, similar to our units, e.g., graded reflectivity mirrors, are currently employed in many commercial lasers. Four papers of my contribution in the field of apodization were reprinted in the book 29.
In recent years, a new interest to superGaussian beams appeared in the connection with femtosecond self-focusing and filamentation which attract attention of many researchers with practial application of filamentation in atmosphere with possibility to control lightening. I am a co-editor of submitted Springer-Verlag book "Self-focusing: past and present" (jointly with R.W. Boyd and Y.-R. Shen) and a co-author of a chapter in it "Beam shaping and suppression of self-focusing in high-pick-power Nd:glass laser systems" [jointly with Yu.V. Senatsky, N.E. Bykovsky (P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow) and A.S. Scheulin (State Optical Institute, St-Petersburg)].
I am interested in influence of beam profile not only on self-focusing, but also in other nonlinear optical and quantum phenomena.
For details and publications follow this link ...
My long-term plans and directions include further development of two main components of my research - light sources and light-matter-interaction through several projects above and addition of some new ones. On this way I will continue to work with single-photon light levels studying the quantum properties of light. When reliable and efficient single-photon source will be built I also intend to use it in fundamental quantum optics experiments, e.g. on quantum interference with single photons from different sources .
Among the new projects, my main priority will be life-science and biomedical applications of my research. I am currently thinking about a proposal of the application of single-photon counting technique for 1.3 - 1.55 μm in biomedicine using my single-photon source research experience with PbSe quantum dots and other emitters (e.g., rare-earth ions) as fluorescence markers which fluoresce in this spectral region. It is well-established fact that human tissue is transparent for optical radiation of these wavelengths. This project will also raise a question on light propagation in a scattering medium.
|1.||S.G. Lukishova, A.W. Schmid, R. Knox, P. Freivald, L. Bissell, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, Jr, K.L. Marshall, "Deterministically polarized, room temperature source of single photons", J. Modern Optics, Special Issue on Single Photon: Sources, Detectors, Applications and Measurement Methods, Vol. 54, iss. 2 & 3, pp. 417-429, 2007.|
|2.||S.G. Lukishova, A.W. Schmid, Ch. M. Supranowitz, N. Lippa, A. J. McNamara, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, Jr., "Dye-doped cholesteric-liquid-crystal room-temperature single photon source, J. of Modern Optics, Special Issue on Single Photon: Detectors, Applications and Measurements Methods, Vol. 51, No 9-10, pp.1535-1547, 2004.|
|3.||S.G. Lukishova, A.W. Schmid, A. J. McNamara, R.W. Boyd, and C.R. Stroud, "Room temperature single photon source: single dye molecule fluorescence in liquid crystal host", IEEE J. of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Special issue on Quantum Internet Technologies, Vol. 9, No 6, pp.1512-1518, 2003.|
|4.||S.G. Lukishova, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, "Efficient room-temperature source of polarized single photons", US Patent 7, 253,871, Aug. 7, 2007.|
|5.||S.G. Lukishova, L. Bissell, C.R. Stroud, Jr., R.W. Boyd, M.A. Hahn, T.D. Krauss, V. Menon, N. Valappil, "Room-temperature single-photon source based on colloidal quantum dots in photonic bandgap structures", Single-photon workshop SPW 2007, Sources, Detectors, Applications and Measurements Methods, Technical Digest, 2 pages, 25-28 September 2007, Turin, Italy.|
|6.||K. Dolgaleva, S. K. Wei, A. Trajkovska, S. Lukishova, R.W. Boyd, S.-H. Chen "Oligofluorene as a new high-performance dye for cholesteric liquid crystal lasers", Frontiers in Optics/Laser Science 2006, Technical Digest, paper FThD4, October 8-12, 2006, Rochester, NY.|
|7.||T. Schmitt-Manderbach, H. Weier, M. Fuerst, R. Ursin, F. Tiefenbacher, T. Scheidl, J. Perdigues, Z. Sodnik, C. Kurtsiefer, J.G. Rarity, A. Zeilinger, H. Weinfurter, "Experimental demonstration of free-space decoy-state quantum key distribution over 144 km", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 98 (1), Art. No. 010504 JAN 5 2007.|
|8.||K. Galvez, Photon Quantum Mechanics.|
|9.||M Beck, Modern Quantum Mechanics Experiments for Undergraduates..|
|10.||S.G. Lukishova, C.R. Stroud, Jr., L. Bissell, A. K. Jha, L. Elgin, "Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Teaching Laboratory Course", Frontiers in Optics, Special Symposium "Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Teaching Experiments", Rochester, NY, October 12, 2006.|
|11.||J. -C. Lee, S. D. Jacobs, T. Gunderman, A. Schmid, T. J. Kessler, and M. D. Skeldon, "TEM00-mode and single-longitudinal-mode laser operation with a cholesteric liquid-crystal laser end mirror", Opt. Lett., Vol. 15, p. 959 (1990).|
|12.||H.G. Winful, "Nonlinear reflection in cholesteric liquid crystals: mirrorless optical bistability", Phys. Rev. Lett., Vol. 49, p. 1179 (1982).|
|13.||S.G. Lukishova, E.A. Magulariya, K.S. Lebedev, "Nd:YAG laser induced nonlinear selective reflection by a cholesteric liquid crystal mirror", Bulletin of the Russian Acad. of Sciences (Izvestiya RAN), Ser. Physics, Vol. 59, N 12, pp.2086-2090, 1995.|
|14.||S.G. Lukishova, K.S. Lebedev, E.A. Magulariya, S.V. Belyaev, N.V. Malimonenko, A.W. Schmid, "Nonlinear "brightening" of a film of nonabsorbing chiral nematic under selective reflection conditions", JETP Lett., Vol. 63, No. 6, pp.423-428, 1996.|
|15.||S.G. Lukishova, S.V. Belyaev, K.S. Lebedev, E.A. Magulariya, A.W. Schmid, N.V. Malimonenko, "Behaviour of nonlinear liquid-crystal mirrors, made of nonabsorbing cholesteric, in the cavity of an Nd:YAG laser operating in the cw regime and at a high pulse repetition frequency", Russian J. Quant. Electron., Vol. 26, N 9, pp.796-798, 1996.|
|16.||D. Grebe, R. Macdonald, H.J. Eichler,"Cholesteric liquid crystal mirrors for pulsed solid state lasers", Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst., Vol. 282, p.309 (1996).|
|17.||S.M. Morris, A.D. Ford, M.N. Pivnenko, H.J. Coles, "The effects of reorientation on the emission properties of a photonic band edge liquid crystal laser", Pure and Appl. Opt., Vol. 7 (5), pp. 215 - 223 (2005).|
|18.||M.A. Bolshtyansky, N.V. Tabiryan, B.Y. Zeldovich, "BRIEFING: Beam reconstruction by iteration of an electromagnetic field with an induced nonlinearity gauge", Opt. Lett., Vol. 22 (1), pp. 22 - 24 (1997).|
|19.||S.G. Lukishova, "Nonlinear optical response of cyanobiphenyl liquid crystals to high-power, nanosecond laser radiation", J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. & Mater., Vol. 9, pp. 365-411, 2000.|
|20.||N.B. Abraham and W.J. Firth, "Overview of transverse effects in nonlinear-optical systems". J. Opt. Soc. Amer., Vol. 7, pp. 951-962 (1990).|
|21.||M.A. Vorontsov and W.B. Miller, Eds., Self-Organization in Optical Systems and Applications in Information Technology, Springer, 247 p. (1995).|
|22.||S.G. Lukishova, I.K. Krasyuk, P.P. Pashinin, A.M. Prokhorov, "Apodization of light beams as a method of brightness enhancement in neodimium glass laser installations", in Formation and Control of Optical Wavefronts, Proceedings of the Institute of General Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences, Vol. 7, edited by P.P. Pashinin, Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1987, pp.92-147 (in Russian).|
|23.||M.D. Skeldon, "Transverse modulation instabilities in the presence of stimulated rotational Raman-scattering with a high-energy laser", Opt. Lett., Vol. 20 (8), pp. 828-830 (1995).|
|24.||S. Lukishova, "Single-beam light-induced phenomena in dye-doped liquids and liquid crystals", Technical Digest, IQEC 2005 (11-15 July 2005, Tokyo, Japan), pp. 771-772, paper QWAB3-P54, 2005.|
|25.||D. Voloschenko and O.D. Lavrentovich, "Light-induced director-controlled microassembly of dye molecules from a liquid crystal matrix", J. Appl. Phys., Vol. 86 (9), pp. 4843 - 4846 (1999).|
|26.||W.L. Luo and N.V. Tabiryan, "Soret feedback in thermal diffusion of suspensions", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 57 (4), pp. 4431-4440 (1998).|
|27.||J.P. Delville, C. Lalaude, E. Freysz, A. Ducasse, "Phase separation and droplet nucleation induced by an optical piston", Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 49, pp. 4145-4148 (1994).|
|28.||R.S. Bennink, V. Wong, A.M. Marino, D.L. Aronstein, R.W. Boyd, C.R. Stroud, Jt., S. Lukishova, D.J. Gauthier, "Honeycomb pattern formation by laser-beam filamentation in atomic sodium vapor", Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, N 11, 113901-(pp.1-4) ( 2002).|
|29.||Selected Papers on Apodization: Coherent Optical Systems, SPIE Milestone Series on Selected Reprints, edited by J.P. Mills and B. J. Thomson, Vol. MS 119, 1996, Bellingham, Washington, four journal papers were reprinted (pp. 301-304; pp. 334-341; pp. 362-374; pp. 447-458).|
|30.||S.G. Lukishova, S.A. Chetkin, N.V. Mettus, E.A. Magulariya, "Techniques for fabrication of multilayer dielectric graded-reflectivity mirrors and their use in enhancement of the brightness of the radiation from a multimode Nd3+:YAG laser with a stable cavity", Russian J. Quant. Electron., Vol. 26, N 11, pp.1014-1017, 1996.|
|31.||H. de Riedmatten, I. Marcikis, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, N. Gisin, "Quantum interference with photon pairs created in spatially separated sources", Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 67, 022301 (2003).|